AI vs. Humans: Mastering Empathy and Persuasion in Crisis Communication

Assessing AI's Impact on Crisis Management: Can Machines Truly Understand Human Emotions?

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Dear reader,

Welcome to the latest issue of the Wag The Dog newsletter, in which I report on the impact of artificial intelligence on crisis and risk communication.

It's now clear that AI offers unprecedented scalability and consistency in our communications. However, we need to temper our enthusiasm with a healthy dose of caution.

In this issue, I look at how AI not only supports but also enhances human efforts to communicate in emergencies without sacrificing essential human qualities, even though some studies suggest AI is more empathic and can be more persuasive than humans.

Let’s dive in!

Table of Contents

The Rapid Progress of AI

The latest Stanford AI Index Report1 clearly shows the rapid progress in artificial intelligence, particularly in the field of natural language processing.

In particular, large language models (LLMs) such as GPT-4 are now able to perform tasks that were previously thought to be the sole preserve of humans.

These systems no longer just process data, but perform complex interactions that require a deep understanding of human emotions — a crucial advance for areas such as crisis and risk communication.

Empathy: the new frontier of AI

Recent AI research has shown that models are now able to generate empathetic responses. In crisis situations where emotions are running high and the stakes are higher, empathy is essential in communication.

Studies have shown that AI can often provide more empathetic responses than humans2 .

In a study analysing 195 patient-physician exchanges, evaluators consistently favoured chatbot responses over physician replies for both quality and empathy. Chatbot responses were rated as more empathetic and of higher quality, with evaluators preferring chatbot replies 78.6% of the time. The study also found that chatbot responses were nearly 10 times more likely to be considered of good or very good quality compared to physician responses.

Study: Comparing Physician and Artificial Intelligence Chatbot Responses to Patient Questions Posted to a Public Social Media Forum.

This development could change the way organisations communicate in emergencies by enabling immediate, consistent and reassuring interactions that help to reduce anxiety and build trust.

AI's ability to manage multiple interactions simultaneously means that empathetic communications can be scaled and reach a wider audience during widespread crises without losing emotional quality.

Persuasion Through AI

AI is also making strides in persuasive communication. The technology's ability to effectively inform and persuade could dramatically increase compliance with safety measures in emergencies.

In controlled experiments, LLMs equipped with personalisation features were 81.7% more effective at influencing participants' opinions than human communicators.3 

This persuasive power is particularly valuable in emergencies that require rapid public action.

AI-driven persuasive messages tailored based on basic socio-demographic data can resonate more with different groups, improving response rates and compliance.

Considerations and challenges

However, the use of AI in crisis communications is not without ethical dilemmas. The depth of empathy and conviction generated by AI raises significant questions about the authenticity of the simulated emotions and beliefs.

AI doesn't really 'feel' empathy, it mimics empathic responses based on patterns it has learned from extensive data sets, which raises concerns about the authenticity of these interactions and the potential for manipulation.

Also, the use of personal data to customise communication raises significant privacy issues. It is important that AI systems are transparent about how they use data and strictly adhere to data protection regulations.

There is also a risk of over-reliance on technology, which could lead to a reduction in human staff and affect the system's ability to process complex emotional nuances in high-stakes situations.

Balancing AI and human roles in crisis communications

The role of AI is undeniably transformative, but it should be viewed with cautious optimism. While AI offers unprecedented scalability and consistency in communications, it should not replace the important human elements of empathy and ethical judgement.

Looking to the future, the focus should be on developing hybrid communication models where AI supports and enhances human endeavours rather than replacing them.

This approach will ensure that crisis communication remains both effective and human, leveraging the strengths of AI and human interaction to manage communications during emergencies.

Poll: What do you think?

How should AI be integrated into crisis and risk communication strategies to best complement human efforts?

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1  AI Index Report 2024 Artificial Intelligence Index. (2024). Stanford University -

2  Ayers, J. W., Poliak, A., Dredze, M., Leas, E. C., Zhu, Z., Kelley, J. B., Faix, D. J., Goodman, A. M., Longhurst, C. A., Hogarth, M., & Smith, D. M. (2023). Comparing Physician and Artificial Intelligence Chatbot Responses to Patient Questions Posted to a Public Social Media Forum. JAMA Internal Medicine, 183(6), 589.

3  Salvi, F., Ribeiro, M. H., Gallotti, R., & West, R. (2024). On the Conversational Persuasiveness of Large Language Models: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Reminder: Webinar: The Future of Crisis Simulations.

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Parts of this newsletter were created using AI technology to draft content. In addition, all AI-generated images include a caption stating, 'This image was created using AI'. These changes were made in line with the transparency requirements of the EU AI law for AI-generated content.

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